Right to Education Act, 2002 (Article 21-A)

The constitution of India inserted Right to Information Act by 68th amendment to provide free and compulsory education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years as a Fundamental Right. The right of free education represents that every child can have full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms.

Objectives Of Right to Education Act:

  1. To explain the importance of education to the person with disabilities.
  2. To understand the interrelation between education and other human rights.
  3. To understand the provisions on education by the UN Convention on rights of the person with disabilities.
  4. To understand different perspectives on special education.
  5. To ensure that education becomes a means of genuine empowerment of individuals To achieve full potential.
  6. To ensure learning process is locally and relevant, child centered, activity based and joyful.
  7. To ensure the educational management is decentralized to the community.


  Salient Features of RTE

  1. Every child from the age group 6014 years has the right of free and compulsory education in a neighborhood school till the completion of elementary stage.
  2. Private schools will have to take 25 percent of their class strength from the weaker section and disadvantaged group of the society through a random selection process. Government will fund the education of this set.
  3. No seats in this quota can be left vacant.
  4. No donation and capitalization fee is allowed.
  5. No admission test or interview of the child parent is permitted.
  6. A fixed student and teacher ratio needs to be maintained.
  7. Norms for the teachers training and qualification is also mentioned in the Act.
  8. There is a provision for establishment of commissions to supervise the implementation of the Act.
  9. No child can be held back or expelled required to complete the board exams till the completion of elementary education.
  10. All schools except private unaided schools are needed  to be managed by school management committee with 75 % of parents and guidance as members.
  11. The RTE Act provides rules for not admitting child  to an age to the appropriate class
  12. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate government, local authority and parents in proving free and compulsory education.
  13. It lays down the norms and standards relating to student teacher ratio,  buildings and infrastructure,  school working days and teachers working hours.
  14. It prohibits physical punishment and mental harassment,  capitalization fee,   private tut ions by teachers,  running of schools without recognition.
  15. It ensure all round development of a child and building the child knowledge.
  16. Making the child free from fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and centered learning.
  17. It ensues there is no urban-rural imbalance in teachers posting.
  18.  It provides for prohibition of employment of teachers for non educational purposes except elections and disaster relief.

Drop in comments for any query. 


Sailent Features of The Competetion Act ,2002

The Act was passed to replace the MRTP 1969 Act ( Monopolistic Restrictive Trade Practices). Government realised thta because of international economic development, MRTP has become obsolete. Thus to serve competetion from within the country and outside, Competetion Act was passed on 13th January, 2003 .
But it is stated under amendenets in 12 of 2003.

  • This Act is applicable to the whole of India except Jammu and Kashmir
  • It came into force on different dates as  the central Government by notification in the Official Gazette, appointed.

Features of The Competetion Act -2002

  • It is enacted to prevent practices having an appreciable adverse effect on competition, to promote and sustain competition in the market and to promote the interests of consumers and to ensure freedom of trade.
  • Wih the enforcement of the Competiton Act, 2002 the MRTP Act, 1969 shall stand repealed and the MRTP Commission shall be dissolved.
  • It seeks to achieve its objectives by prohibiting anti competitive rade agreements, preventing abuse of dominance,  regulating combinations and formulating a policy on competition,  creating awareness by imparting training on competition issues.
  • The act provides for the establishment of Competition Commission of India and prescribes its duties, functions and powers.
  • The open and fair competition also protects the interest of consumers which is one of the objective in the preamble of The Competition Act,  2002.
  • It applies to all goods including the goods imported into India and servies as defined in the Act.
  • The Act is applicable to all the enterprise which inter-alia include private sector undertakings,  public sector undertakings,  Government Departments performing non soverieghn functions for considerations.
  • Amendements to the Act:  The Competition Act was first amended by the Competition (Amendments) Act,  2007,  inter-alia provides for the following:-a) The Commission shall be an expert body which would function as a market regulator for preventing and regulaing anti competitive practices in the country in accordance with the Act and it would have advisory and advocacy functions in its role as a regulator.
    b) For establishment of the Competetion Appellate Tribunal,  which shall be a thee member quasi judicial body headed by a person who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice of the High Court’ to hear and dispose of appeas agaisnt any direction issued or decision made or order passed by the Commission.
    c) For adjudication by the Competition Appellate Tribunal of claims on comepensation and passing orders for the recovery of compensation from any enterprise for any loss or damage suffered as a result of any contravention of the provision of the Act.
    d) For implementation of the orders of the Competition Appeallate Tribunal as a decree of a civil court.
    e) For filing of appeal against the orders of the Competition Appeallate Tribunal to Supreme Court.

The Act was further amended by the Competiton(Amendment) Ordinance,  2009 which brought an end to MRTP commission, with effect from October 14,  2009.

Drop in comments for any doubts and suugestions below in the comment section.

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